Til Planutvalget i Østre Toten kommune
“In the present Western view of space…we tend to see buildings floating in empty space, as if the space between them were an empty sea.” - Christopher Alexander, p. 174, Book One, The Nature of Order
"Positive space refers to Gestalt psychology, and links geometry with the basis of human perception. Convexity plays a major role in defining an object or a space, whether this is an area or a volume. We feel comfortable or uncomfortable in the spaces we inhabit for a combination of mathematical and psychological reasons. We strongly feel a threat from objects sticking out. We need to apply the positive space concept to both figure and background. Not only the building’s interior space but also urban space must be positive: see “Urban space and its information field” (Salingaros, 1999)." - Nikos A. Salingaros
|Det nye pumpehuset både stikker ut og stikker opp, istedenfor å underordne seg det historiske miljøet på gårdstunet.|
Objekter som stikker ut oppleves som truende.
Pumpehuset bryter ned opplevelsen av konveksitet oppe på tunet.
Det var også bra at de fikk lagt rørgata opp til Sundby øst for Grythengen.
Pumpehuset ble derimot mislykket ved at det ikke underordner seg tunet på Grythengen, og slik svekker opplevelsen av positivt rom oppe på tunet, og dermed gir rommet mellom bygningene mindre styrke som et senter. For meg var det opplagt at når det ble bestemt at pumpehuset skulle ligge langsmed vegen, var dette for å styrke tunet. Om jeg ikke har understreket dette skriftlig har jeg i alle fall gjort det muntlig.
Pumpehuset, som står ca 15 grader på skrå ifht. tunet, framstår nå som å flyte i åpent rom, uten respekt til sine omgivelser. Det har derfor karakter av det motsatte av hensikten med god arkitektur. Som Tom Kabula formulerer det: "Architecture, in this world, is a set of attributes, unfolded from everything around it."
Ekte arkitektur er en serie av attributter til sine omgivelser, foldet ut fra disse. Pumpehuset er med sin skråstilling ifht. tunet ikke attributterende på noe vis, men svekker tvert imot tunet som positivt rom. Dette gir en følelse av vertigo og stresser de nedarvede biologiske instinkter. Slik skal ikke et gårdstun være, dette skal gi en følelse av ro og lukkethet, og ikke minst balanse.
Den som har plottet dette pumpehuset er preget av et vestlig tankesett, hvor man ser bygninger som løsrevet fra sine omgivelser, flytende i et tomrom. Men dette er en respektløs tankegang. Man har her å gjøre med et historisk tun!
Blar man i bokverket Norske gardsbruk vil man finne at i de norske gårdstun har man vært opptatt av å skape gode rom. Ikke bare ved at bygninger er plassert vinkelrett ifht. hverandre, men også ved at man nærmest utelukkende har benyttet en rektangulær form, i alt fra bryggerhus til våningshus, hvilket er avgjørende for å bygge positivt rom.
Christopher Alexander understreker hvorfor dette er avgjørende:
"Third, it comes about because people do not understand the nature of the positive space next to the building. A rounded building or an angular building can only very rarely form positive space next to it."Videre var jeg klar på at pumpehuset skulle bygges inn i terrenget, mens det nå er plassert på en haug over terrenget. Slik hoverer det istedenfor å underordne seg de historiske bygningene oppe på tunet, samt at det framstår som truende.
Jeg må derfor be om at pumpehuset rettes opp ca 15 grader slik at det blir liggende parallelt med stabburet. Det ligger forresten heller ikke parallelt med vegen. Man må her ta med landmålerutstyr, slik at man er sikker på at det blir liggende korrekt ifht. stabburet og de andre bygningene oppe på gårdstunet.
Videre må man løfte opp pumpehuset og fjerne den øverste ringen på pumpebrønnen, slik at det ikke blir liggende å hovere, lik et seiers-monument på en pidestall.
Til slutt bør man gi pumpehuset et lag rødmaling, slik at man blir kvitt den dystre svartmalinga. På gårder er det tradisjon for at nyttehus er rødmalte.
De gamle gårdstunene skal man være ydmyke for og respektere. Det har ikke Teknisk Etat for Østre Toten kommune gjort. Tunet er gårdens hjerte og gårdstunet er Norges sjel!
Derfor må de nevnte forhold rettes opp i.
"The POSITIVE-SPACE transformation. This transformation is one of the most important and profound, but it is one of the hardest to define. It may be applied to any center, and helps to shape some of the so called “empty” spaces which fill out the interstices within the original center. The “positiveness” of space comes from a combination of good shape, local symmetries, boundedness and above all from the appropriateness of the space for purposes. This transformation is applied most typically to the latent centers formed in the space between other centers, thus giving these otherwise leftover spaces definite and recognizable form." - Christopher AlexanderÅ skape vakre omgivelser og behagelige gårdstun er umulig uten å forholde seg til de 15 transformasjonene for utfoldelse av helhet. Teknisk etat og Østre Toten kommune må forholde seg til disse i sitt arbeid, hvorav positivt rom - transformasjonen er av de mest sentrale.
I believe the fifteen transformations I have discovered will turn out to be naturally occurring, and necessarily occurring in all complex systems. The laws leading to their existence, will turn out, I think, to be inevitable or necessary results of the unfolding of wholeness, under the right conditions. And I believe, too, that our 20th-century notion that mechanical effects without the guiding influence of these fifteen transformations, can create the beautiful structures we encounter in the universe, is simply wrong. In other words, it is the action of wave motion, mitigated by the fifteen transformations, that creates the beauty of the breaking wave; it is the operation of natural selection, mitigated by the action of these fifteen transformations, which generates discernible and coherent forms in the play of genetics and evolution; I believe it is the operation and unfolding of the most ordinary flower or stem of grass, mitigated by the operation of the same fifteen transformations, which generates the beauty of the flower. I believe that it is the same fifteen transformations which mitigate and channel the crumbling and heaving and bending of the geologic strata which generated the beauty of the Himalaya; and these fifteen transformations, too, which mitigate the action and swirling of the vortices on Jupiter, or the rippled piebald configurations we call a mackerel sky. – Christopher Alexander, New Concepts in Complexity Theory, side 21Christopher Alexanders funn vedrørende de 15 helhetsutvidende transformasjonene i "The Nature of Order", viser at mine observasjoner vedrørende pumpehusets plassering og framtoning er basert på solide empiriske observasjoner og eksperimenter.
In the fourth chain of my argument, I come back to the process of doing any work of unfolding and the core activity that needs to be followed for the unfolding to arise successfully. This depends on a cognitive state that will allow a human being—any artist, maker, architect or planner—indeed, anyone—to perform an unfolding successfully. This requires that he or she pay attention to the whole (not always easy)—a skill that must be learned, since it requires that the person forget himself or herself sufficiently to be able to act as nature does.Teknisk etat og Østre Toten kommune har feilet fullstendig ved plasseringen av pumpehuset. Dette skyldes at man ikke har tatt Alexanders retningslinjer, som er solid vitenskap, på alvor. Resultatet er svært strukturødeleggende!
The argument of Book 1, The Phenomenon of Life, may be captured by the following results that summarize 30 years of observation and experimenter:
2. The idea of how much life is in things is objective in the sense of observation and is thus common to people of different inclinations and cultures. This is a surprise, since the finding seems to contradict the accepted wisdom of cultural relativity. (demonstrated)
3. This quality of life seems to be correlated with the repeated appearance of 15 geometric properties—or geometrical invariants—that appear throughout the object’s configuration. (demonstrated)
4. We began to refer to this quality, in its geometrical aspect, as “living structure.”
5. The appearance of living structure in things—large or small—is also correlated with the fact that these things induce deep feeling and a quality of connectedness in those who are in the presence of these things. (demonstrated)
6. Degree of life is an objective quality that may be measured by empirical methods. The empirical test that most trenchantly predicts “life” in things is a test that asks which of two things induces the greater wholeness in the observer and which of the two most nearly resembles the observer’s inner self. (demonstrated)
7. Astonishingly, in spite of the vast variety of human beings and human culture, there is substantial agreement about these judgments, thus suggesting a massive pool of agreement about the deep nature of a “human self” and possibly suggesting that we may legitimately speak of “the” human self. (at least strongly indicated)
8. The 15 properties are the ways in which living centers can support other living centers. A center is a field-like centrality that occurs in space. (demonstrated)
9. In phenomena ranging in scale from 10-15 to 10-8 meters, on the surface of the Earth ranging from 10-5 to 105meters, and at cosmological scales ranging from 109 to 1026 meters, the same 15 properties occur repeatedly in natural systems.
10. There is substantial empirical evidence that the quality of buildings and works of art as judged by knowledgeable people who have the experience to evaluate quality with some objectivity is predicted by the presence and density of the 15 properties. (demonstrated)
11. It is possible that the properties, as they occur in artifacts, may originate with cognition and work because of cognition, and that is why we respond to them.
12. But that cannot explain why they also occur, recur, and play such a significant role in natural phenomena.
13. Centers appear in both living and non-living structures. But in the living structures, there is a higher density and degree of cooperation among the centers, especially among the larger ones. This feature comes directly from the presence of the 15 properties and the density with which they occur. (demonstrated)
Continuing the sequence of my argument, now focusing on the logic set forth in Book 2, The Process of Creating Life:
14. The structure of living things has been shown to have a predictable geometric coherence at least partly governed by the 15 properties presented in Book 1. (demonstrated)
15. In examining the origin of those things in nature and in art that possess living structure, we find that this living structure comes about, almost without exception, as a result of an unfolding process that draws structure from the whole by progressive differentiation. (demonstrated)
16. More particularly, it is possible to define a new class of transformations—“wholeness-extending transformations”—that allow continuous elaboration of any portion of the world, according to non-disruptive and healing acts. [Note: In Book 2, the term “structure-preserving transformations” is used throughout. Since its publication, I have adopted the more expressive term “wholeness-extending.”]
17. This progressive differentiation and coherence building can be shown to depend on the system of wholeness-extending transformations that preserve and extend wholeness. (demonstrated)
18. In addition, it can be shown that these transformations generate the 15 properties as a natural by-product of their wholeness-extending actions. (demonstrated)
19. It is precisely the use of these wholeness-extending transformations that has generated the greatly loved, and now treasured, traditional environments throughout the world. (demonstrated).
20. It can also be shown that the environments typically created by commercial development in the last 100 years are generated by an almost diametrically opposed system of wholeness-disrupting transformations. (demonstrated)
21. It may be concluded that healthy environments can only be generated by actions and processes based on wholeness-extending transformations. If we hope for health or living structure in our built environment, it is reasonable to say that the efforts of project initiation, design, planning, and construction must be revised to incorporate the necessary processes.
22. Not surprisingly, the new methods and processes required to achieve this healing will need to be substantially different from present-day commercial methods, thus requiring great courage and a widespread willingness to make serious changes in society. (demonstrated)
23. Examples throughout Book 2 demonstrate how a great variety of sequential-holistic processes can give rise to effective unfolding and produce new buildings and environments that have greater than normal coherence, adaptation, and harmony with their surroundings.
24. It is shown, above all, that it is the holistic and sequential nature of the unfolding that governs the coherent quality of end-product configurations. As far as we are aware, only this kind of process places appropriate emphasis on the well-being of the whole.
Continuing the argument as it is presented in Book 3, A Vision of a Living World:
25. The core quality of an environment that is unfolded through wholeness-extending transformations is its deep relatedness to human beings in a way that may be called “belonging.” (demonstrated)
26. This belonging must be something related to people’s everyday inner feelings. This relatedness is not trivial but leads, rather, to a far deeper substance than the artificial constructions currently hailed as “art.” (demonstrated)
27. In addition, structures created by a process of unfolding are likely to have a wider range of physical and human characteristics—far wider than the range of those visible in the homogeneous commercial projects of our time. They will, by their nature and by the nature of wholeness-extending transformations, nourish the land and people and give rise to a great depth and substance that provides genuine support for human beings and the Earth. (demonstrated)
28. Made in this way, the environment will be sustainable as a whole, and in a deeper and more comprehensive way than the partial technological sustainability that has become fashionable in recent years.
29. Book 3 provides many examples of buildings and building complexes where wholeness-extending transformations have been at work in different environmental and human settings. From these examples, one sees how much richer and more various both the processes and the resulting products are. (widely demonstrated)
30. Furthermore, in all these examples, there is a richer variety and greater number of living centers, at all scales, ranging from the very large to the very small. When one examines these examples, the characteristic change of overall quality that these techniques induce is plain to see. (demonstrated)
31. It is anticipated that such environments will, by their nature, give honor and respect to all people on earth. (Partially verified, but certainly not yet truly demonstrated, since many more examples from different cultures still need to be built and tested.)
32. As far as the extant examples are concerned, they seem to come closer to a new form of collective art that evokes the true nature of people able to express and live their own aspirations, culture by culture. All these examples encourage people to increase their own self-esteem and that of others.
33. By honoring the wholeness of the Earth and its neighborhoods, these newly built places, in their physical character and presence, are also likely to encourage and support new depths of spiritual seriousness in the people who make them and for whom they are made.
34. Such environments have not previously been an object of scientific study. The in-depth analysis and description of such profoundly made environments advances our understanding of the basic qualities and characteristics of the environment and offers an approach to healing.
35. Most important is that the many experiments described in Book 3 use the generating processes put forward in Books 1 and 2, and one can see the results. Briefly put, the places are experienced by people who live in them, work in them, or visit them, as something that establishes a deeper connection. In some fashion, which appears inescapable, the theory of Books 1 and 2, is confirmed by the physical results in building and by the way these places work—far more deeply, so it is argued, by people who have been in them—than the normal buildings and plans made by other contemporary methods. (demonstrated)
36. It is to be hoped that the empirical base will not only provide a sturdy underpinning for a new way of regarding the world we live in but will also provide a foundation for social and political methods of achieving these results on a wider scale. This empirical base also validates an interpretation that describes the interaction of people and their environment in a much deeper fashion than we have been used to in contemporary dialogue. Something has shifted.
Completing my summary of the argument, the following steps are laid out and explored in Book 4, The Luminous Ground:
37. The empirical arguments presented in Books 1, 2, and 3, are fairly straightforward. They provide a concrete, substantial way of understanding the quality of artifacts, works of nature, and works of building. But what has not been visible so far is that the web of these empirical findings leads to an altogether deeper and somewhat mysterious picture. This picture must be understood so that one can fully grasp the significance of the earlier empirical discoveries.
38. Let us come back, then, in this fourth book, to the whole: the nature of the living whole and the way that any one part of that whole plays its role within the larger whole, binding everything together. To some degree we have a picture of the way this happens, also of the processes that make it happen. But what is the meaning of these processes? What is their significance in the larger scheme of things?
39. We have seen that living structure occurs when centers unfold from the whole and form complex binding schemes in which larger centers emerge from the whole, intensify the life of whole, and are built from smaller centers. (demonstrated)
40. We have also seen, repeatedly, that any example of living structure creates a connection between that structure and the human self and is in some definite sense “personal.” (demonstrated)
41. These observations gain empirical support from the experiments in Book 1, which indicate that perception of a self-like quality in a thing (whether it be natural or humanmade) provides the most direct access to the degree of life in the thing. (demonstrated)
42. The observations also gain strong empirical support from the experiments described in Book 3, where attention to the living structure in an environment strongly increases the feeling of belonging that people experience there. (demonstrated)
43. These two conclusions suggest that what I call “living structure”—whether it occurs in nature or in art—is entangled with the human self, in some fashion that we have not previously understood.
44. More specifically, every single living center that appears repeatedly in living structure, at many overlapping scales, has a character connected to the human self.
45. Even more exactly, any environment that has life or, for that matter, any system or work of art that has life incorporates multiple and sometimes very large numbers of living centers that appear to be being-like—i.e., self-like. This appears to be a fact of nature—not merely a psychological or cognitive interpretation.
46. Experiments, observations, and descriptions of these phenomena finally bring us to the brink of something one can hardly avoid saying—namely, that the natural phenomena and artifacts made in this way and the living structure they exhibit strongly suggest the need for a modified understanding of the nature of matter.
47. It appears that the process of making a living environment succeeds or not to the degree that the making process is based on the repeated use of the criterion, “How much is this part, that part, or that whole like my true, inner self?” We thus find a substantial, empirically-based clue for making ecologically wholesome places, spiritually sustaining places, and energetically self-supporting places.
48. By empirical standards, this is a startling proposal. All these forms of making are dependent on perceptions and actions that might be imagined as appropriate and natural for a 14th-century Christian monk or a Sufi saint. They are far removed from the current late-20th century version of our scientific world view and what it tells us to do.
49. If the view presented turns out to be a sound and testable picture of reality, as my experiments suggest, we must then be prepared to contemplate and perhaps in the end accept a modification in our present-day view of the nature of space and matter.
50. In any case, whether we succeed in this renewal or not, it does seem that there are good grounds for reviewing our picture of the nature of living structure and the matter from which we are made and which surrounds us. (demonstrated)
51. At the very least, in my experience, thoughtful people who have contemplated these issues and thought about them carefully, find—sometimes with a sigh of acceptance and relief—that, within this frame of reference, they are finally able to live in a world that makes sense. They are able to act in a way that makes sense and without those actions being based on any current canons of morality.
52. This is a world view in which acceptance of the whole and efforts to heal the whole can be seen as the most profound and most important forms of prayer. This world view is consistent with modern science and yet calls into question some of science’s most deeply rooted assumptions.
53. It is a new kind of thought about matter, in which our understanding of the world is coupled with the idea of healing the world, and in which our relation with the world is to be understood through realizing that our own selves are in the world, part of it, and not separated from it.
54. In such a modified world view, science can perhaps be brought into alignment with human feeling and awareness.
55. An apparent link between environment, self, God, and matter has shown itself. It has been uncovered by carefully raking through the ashes of our mechanical civilization and in the attempt to build a phoenix of living structure that may arise again, if we choose to pay sufficient attention to it.
56. In any case, the world can become beautiful as a result of efforts based on this new understanding. (demonstrated)
57. As a result of these investigations, it may turn out best if we redefine the concept of God in a way that is more directly linked to the concept of “the whole.” This would permit the reconciliation of our daily efforts with the well being of the whole—something that is anyway necessary from a scientific point of view. But in so doing, we may be able to unite the mental and emotional territory of what was traditionally called God in a way that provides the connectedness that people crave and in a way that allows people to feel humility and responsibility for the whole as part of the sum total of mentality that once existed in other cultures and that must exist in our own highly modern civilization in a way that is true to the facts.
58. We would then have the goal of making a world that is literally made, as far as possible, from “self.” This means, of course, the eternal self that lies in each of us and manifests in living structure. This also means that the world is to be made of this substance.
59. But, even more shocking and exciting, there may lie ahead new ways of understanding physics and biology in these terms so that space and matter would be linked and entangled, literally, with the source of all consciousness, by reference to the whole and its hitherto misunderstood properties.
|Pumpehuset ligger tydelig skråstilt ifht. gårdstunet, og bryter med dette ned tunet som et sterkt senter og opplevelsen av positivt rom, to sentrale transformasjoner for utfoldelsen av helhet i materien.|
Det ligger heller ikke parallelt med vegen, men det er opplagt at det er opplevelsen av positivt rom på tunet som skulle vært hovedhensikten med å plassere pumpehuset på langs.
Nå framstår pumpehuset som et uromoment hver gang man kommer ut av våningshuset til tunet.
De norske gårdstunene burde vært hellige i folks bevisthet, da de er nasjonens sjel.
|Her var meget harmonisk før pumpehusets ankomst.|
Fellesvandring etter Kronborgsætergrenda
ALLT SOM FÖRSTÖRTS GÅR ATT ÅTERSTÄLLA
Wholeness as a Hierarchical Graph to Capture the Nature of Space
A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander's Wholeness
Empirical Findings from “The Nature of Order”